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Brand Glossary
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Decline Stage

The final stage of a product's or brand's life cycle, during which sales fall rapidly.

Degree of Difference

A scale set up to measure the differences within specific product or service traits. (e.g., the degree of difference between crackers may measure in “crunch” and/or “crispiness”)


A measure of those in a market who wish to buy a product and have the means to do so.


Quantifiable variables (statistics) within a population, such as age, gender, income level, etc… This does not include classification by subjective attitudes or opinions of consumers. Decisions on market segmentation are often based on demographic data.

Design Strategy

Often confused with Brand Strategy, Design Strategy outlines the brand's aesthetic, ensuring consistent application of brand identity across all points of consumer interaction. A design strategy may be systematic, thematic or both.


Specific wants shaped by cultural and individual personality. For example, the need to satisfy transportation might be expressed as a want for a sports car and become the desire for a Porsche.

Differential Product Advantage

A technological or emotional product feature that is valuable to customers and is not found in other products of the same category.


Creating distinct and specialized characteristics that are unique to the brand and differentiate it from competitors within the same category, with the intent of creating preference and increased demand. This provides the offering with a competitive advantage.


Any tangible or intangible characteristic that can be used to distinguish a brand from competitive offerings.

Dissociative Media

Communications meant to be relevantly "Disruptive" yet lack meaningful connectivity.


The act of a company creating and/or acquiring new brands in new markets to mitigate risk.

Down Market

A brand developed to appeal to lower income consumers.

Dual Representation

The theory that the human brain can assign multiple associations or characteristics to one thing. The Apple logo is an image of an apple, yet we can associate it with the brand instantaneously.

Durable Goods

Consumer goods that have an extensive life cycle and are purchased infrequently. Also referred to as a hard good as these type items do not quickly wear out, or more specifically. These goods yield services or utility over time rather than being completely used up when used once. Most goods are therefore durable goods to a certain degree. Examples of consumer durable goods include cars, appliances, business equipment, electronic equipment, home furnishings and fixtures, houseware and accessories, photographic equipment, recreational goods, sporting goods, toys and games. Durable goods are typically characterized by long interpurchase times—the time between two successive purchases. Nondurable goods or soft goods (consumables) are the opposite of durable goods. They may be defined either as goods that are used up when used once, or that have a lifespan of less than 3 years. Examples of nondurable goods include fast-moving consumer goods such as cosmetics and cleaning products, food, fuel, office supplies, packaging and containers, paper and paper products, personal products, rubber, plastics, textiles, clothing and footwear.