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Glossary
 
Brand Glossary
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Campaign

An operation or series of operations to accomplish a given goal or objective.

Cannibalism

A highly problematic effect of line extension, where the extension steals market share from the original brand.

Captology

The study of the overlap between computing technology and persuasion. This includes the design, research, and analysis of interactive computing products created for the purpose of changing people's attitudes or behaviors.

Cartel

A group of independent companies formed to regulate prices in a given market. This practice is illegal in some countries, including the USA and UK.

Choice Set

A set of brands from which a consumer makes a purchase choice after other brands have been considered and rejected.

Clone

Product that has been designed and packaged to look like a well–established competitor; a cheap imitation, a knockoff.

Co-Brand Partnership

Partnerships where two or more brands (often owned by different companies) are used to promote each other as a common offering.

Collateral

Promotional materials used to present information about an offering and its capabilities, products or services.

Color Forecasting

Predicting that a given color range/palette will gain popularity over time, based on trend research and chroma theory.

Color Palette

Set of approved colors to be used throughout the brand identity.

Commodity

Product that can only be differentiated from those of competitors, by price.

Comparison Pricing

Pricing method in which the price for a new product is set by comparing the benefits it offers to those of other products in the same category.

Competitive Brand

This approach pits two or more Stand Alone Brands (owned by the same the company) against one another for the purpose of market share.

Competitive Set

Any brands that are considered to be targeting the same audience.

Competitors (Actual)

Brands that compete for the same exact consumer segment within the same region. Those offerings that a brand currently competes with.

Competitors (Aspirational)

Any brand that operates in a different field and/or industry who occupies a similar market position.

Competitors (Theoretical)

Any brands that hold an equal value position that operates in a different industry, or are not considered direct competition. These may include brands that compete in different regions.

Confirmation Bias

A tendency for people to seek out or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions and to irrationally avoid information and interpretations which contradict their prior beliefs.

Consumer

A person who acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership as opposed to resale or use in production and manufacturing.

Consumer Characteristics

Any distinctive characteristics or circumstances typical to customers within a given market segment. This allows marketers to distinguish one group of customers from another.

Customer Equity

The total asset value of the relationships which an organization has with its customers.

Consumer Goods

Items purchased by consumers for personal and household use; consumer goods are classified as durables and non-durables.

Consumer Products (or Goods)

Products Goods (consumer goods) or services (consumer services) purchased for private use or for other members of the household. There are three sub-categories of consumer goods. (1) Durable consumer goods, which are used continuously or frequently for more than a year: cars, furniture and household appliances for example. (2) Semi-durable consumer goods, which are used more than once with a lifetime of about a year or so: shoes, clothing and household linens for example. (3) Non-durable goods, are typically consumables, used only once: food, beverages and gasoline for example.

Consumer Segment

Any subdivision of the holistic mass market.

Contingency Plan

A course of action prepared in advance of a potential problem; it answers this question: “How to respond in a way that will neutralize or minimize the damage, if X happens?”

Copyright

Exclusive legal right to copy, publish and sell materials; also, the mark that indicates that the material is so protected. The right of copyright gives protection to the originator of the material to prevent use without express permission or acknowledgement of the originator.

Core Competencies

A company's particular area of skill and/or knowledge that best contribute to its ability to compete in the market. This aids in sustainable growth by developing new products and/or services.

Core Competency

An organization’s particular area of skill and competency that contribute to its ability to compete.

Corporate Brand

Associating the name of a corporation with the individual brand name, usually to ensure that introductions will be more readily accepted.

Corporate Identity

The name, logo and other core brand signals that comprise the visual identity of a organization.

Cost of Ownership

The true cost of a purchase measured by deducting an items residual value from its original purchase price (plus the cost of maintenance and usage) divided by the period of ownership.

Counterfeiting

Creating products and/or packaging that appears to be the same as those of an established brand to deceive the purchaser. This practice is illegal in many countries, including the USA and UK.

Country of Origin

The country from which a given product is made or perceived to be made. Consumers’ willingness to purchase is often heavily influenced by their associations with where a product is designed and manufactured. (e.g., Germany = automobiles, Scotland = scotch, Japan = electronics)

Creative Destruction

The act of developing new product or service offerings that destroy the company's/brand's existing market. [A theory of Joseph Schumpeter]. This practice keeps top companies on top with offerings that are continually one step in front of those of competitors.

Customer

An individual or entity who buys goods or services; usually not by contract.

Customer Relationship Management

Bonding the consumer to the brand through one-to-one customer service, and personal contact between the brand representative and consumer. Tracking customer behavior for the purpose of developing marketing and relationship-building processes.