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Brand Glossary
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Balanced Scorecard

A performance measurement system that relates directly to customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the company's ability to learn and improve. This focuses on financial measures and three sets of operational measures that drive future financial performance.


An objective method for rating one's own activities against similar activities performed by those recognized for best practice. This provides methods for self–evaluation and aims to identify opportunities for process improvement.


An individual who receives value from a purchase, and is not the buyer or user. (e.g., The dinner guests benefited from their host's new gas grill.)

Benefit Analysis

An analysis of relevant consumer needs, wants and desires as they apply to the brand offering.


Any factor that serves as a competitive advantage, enhancing consumers' perception of the brand.

Bottom Up (also referred to as Macro Development)

Brand, product, and/or marketing development that is driven by the external forces (consumers).


A promise to deliver a clearly stated, unique and relevant benefit that is consistently expressed both tangibly and intangibly to differentiate the offering from competitors. The tangible components of a brand, such as the brand's name and logo, are often trademarked to create defendable assets for the organization.

Brand Advocate

A consumer who preaches the merits of a given brand when prompted.

Brand Architecture

How an organization structures and names the brands within its portfolio. There are three main types of brand architecture system: monolithic, where the corporate name is used on all products and services offered by the company; endorsed, where all sub-brands are linked to the corporate brand by means of either a verbal or visual endorsement; and freestanding, where the corporate brand operates merely as a holding company, and each product or service is individually branded for its target market.

Brand Associations

The feelings, beliefs and knowledge that consumers (customers) have about brands. These associations are derived as a result of experiences and must be consistent with the brand positioning and the basis of differentiation.

Brand Attributes

The associations, either functional or emotional, that an audience (consumers and prospects) assigns to the brand. Brand attributes can be either negative or positive and can have varying degrees of relevance and importance to different audiences.

Brand Audit

A comprehensive and systematic examination of a brand’s strategy (brand positioning, basis of differentiation, market position and consumers views) and/or a brand’s identity (brand signals, collateral and advertising).

Brand Awareness

Ability for customers to recognize a brand’s name, logo, offering, and unique point of difference. As a branding metric Brand Awareness is not measure of a brand’s strength, as it measures of consumer knowledge rather than preference.

Brand Champion

Storytellers who spread the brand vision, brand values and cultivate the brand within an organization.

Brand Cognition

Consumers’ perception of a brand concept. The brand promise (statements, actions and experience) is interpreted by consumers and manifested as an expectation (the assumption that the brand will act in a given manor).

Brand Commitment

The degree to which a customer is committed to a given brand in that they are likely to re-purchase/re-use in the future. The level of commitment indicates the degree to which a brand's customer franchise is protected form competitors.

Brand Counsel

A knowledgeable adviser who acts as brand counsel provides an organization with expert branding guidance and recommendations in the combine fields of brand positioning strategy and brand identity.

Brand Culture

Brand culture is a business management technique that aligns business objectives, and consumer needs to form a cultural system that defines the organizations decisions and actions. In order to be effective brand culture must be championed by the CEO and senior management and engage and inspire employees throughout the organization.

Brand Development Index (BDI)

Comparison of the percentage of a brand's sales in a given market to the percentage of the national population in that same market.

Brand Dominance

The state that exists when the majority of consumers believe that one brand outperforms all competitors.

Brand Earnings

Revenues that can be attributed strictly to the brand.

Brand Enthusiast

An individual who preaches the merits of a given brand without encouragement. It is important to recognize that this individual may or may not be a buyer, user, or beneficiary of the brand.

Brand Equity

The sum of all distinguishing qualities of a brand, drawn from all relevant stakeholders, that results in personal commitment to and demand for the brand; these differentiating thoughts and feelings make the brand valued and valuable.

Brand Equity Protection

The implementation of strategies to reduce risk and liability from the effects attributable to counterfeiting, trademark infringement, tampering, black/grey market sales, and the like.

Brand Essence

The brand's promise expressed in the simplest, most single-minded terms. For example, Volvo = safety; AA = Fourth Emergency Service. The most powerful brand essences are rooted in a fundamental customer need.

Brand Expansion

Exposure of a brand to a broader target consumer or geographic market.

Brand Experience

The collective experience a consumer has with the brand, both controlled (such as products/services, brand signals, advertising, etc…) and uncontrolled (such as journalistic comment and word of mouth). Brand value is derived from a positive, clear, differentiated overall brand experience.

Brand Expression

Brand expression is the brand as defined and articulated by the organization. This integrates brand strategy and brand identity to express a multi-sensory brand experience through a portfolio of brand signals. These signals manage consumer expectations by carrying and conveying the brand promise, ensuring that the brand remains consistent and relevant while responding to market changes.

Brand Expression Statement

A statement outlining the brand's points of differentiation, relevance, and authenticity. Unlike a brand’s positioning statement, a Brand Expression Statement is consumer-facing and written in the brand's aesthetic.

Brand Extension (may also be referred to as a Sub-Brand)

The vertical expansion of a brand by leveraging the brand's value to stand for different products/services in new, unrelated, markets. (e.g., Crest's extension from toothpaste to mouthwash, toothbrushes, floss…)

Brand Gap

The distance between promise (how the business presents its brand) and expectation (consumer's opinions/beliefs of that brand).

Brand Guidelines (also referred to as Brand Standards)

A document or manual designed to outline the do's and don'ts of the brand identity, across a wide range of applications.

Brand Harmonization

The synchronization of all brand identity elements, across a line of products or services and/or across geographic markets.

Brand Harmony

Ensuring that all products in a particular brand range have a consistent name, visual identity and, ideally, positioning across a number of geographic or product/service markets.

Brand Harvesting

Decreasing or eliminating marketing expenditure of a given brand when sales and profits begin to decline, relying on the purchases of loyal customers to sustain it.

Brand Identity

The outward expression of the brand, including its name and visual appearance. The brand's identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors.

Brand Identity Misalignment

Presenting a brand identity that does not reflect the strategic intent of the brand strategy. This often results in ineffective tactical decisions that damage both brand equity and brand value.

Brand Image

Consumers’ informed impressions in terms of what the brand represents (associations), what the brand currently stands for (brand promise) and its ability to meet expectations. Additionally, non-users based their opinion of brand image upon association, attitudes and beliefs.

Brand Image Map

The criteria established to guide the development of the brand identity within the strategic intent of the brand strategy. This helps to ensure that the brand identity delivers on the brand promise, to meet expectations.

Brand Innovation

Applying methods for Strategic Change to an offering's features and/or benefits to create new, uncontested market space.

Brand Licensing

The leasing of the brand, by the brand owner use by another company, usually through licensing fee or royalty rate will be agreed for the use of the brand. Brand Licensing is often either a form of Brand Extension of Line Extension, depending on application.

Brand Loyalty

The degree to which a consumer prefers, insists upon, and is willing to pay a premium for a particular brand, as compared to other similar available offerings. As a brand metric, Brand loyalty is a measure of the strength of preference for a brand in terms of repeat purchase behavior or price sensitivity.
See: Switching

Brand Management

Managing the tangible and intangible aspects of the brand by overseeing and directing the implementation of the brand strategy and/or brand guidelines.

Brand Manager

The person responsible for managing a specific brand (often within a portfolio of brands owned by the same organization), to ensure that the brand remains on strategy to increase brand and shareholder equity.

Brand Mapping

A technique to identify and visually present a brand's market position (consumer perception, opportunity, competition…).

Brand Mark

A two dimensional design element that allows consumers identify a specific brand and differentiate that brand from others. (e.g., logo, logotype, or symbol)

Brand Message

The primary message used to express the brand promise. This reflects the desired position of the brand.

Brand Neutral

A consumer who, within a specific category, has no knowledge and/or preference of one brand over another.

Brand Parity

A brand metric which measures the perceived similarity/difference between brands competing in the same category. The similarity/difference varies widely from category to category (e.g.: Consumers may view differences between gasoline brands Shell and BP as being marginal, while they may see differences between motorcycle brands Harley Davidson and Suzuki as being extreme).

Brand Personality

The attribution of human personality traits (seriousness, warmth, imagination, etc.) to a brand as a way to achieve differentiation. Usually done through long-term above-the-line advertising and appropriate packaging and graphics. These traits inform brand behavior through both prepared communication/packaging, etc., and through the people who represent the brand - its employees.

Brand Pessimist

A consumer who, when prompted, will question the merits of a given brand.

Brand Platform

The differentiating factors which frame the brand’s scope of influence, Promise and the core brand signals that consumers will equate to the brand. The brand platform is driven by the organization's view of the future, goals and objectives. This core concept acts as a benchmark to measure behaviors and performance.

Brand Portfolio

The range of brands held by a single company. Assembling a portfolio of brands with significant diversification can reduce risk by amortizing exposure.

Brand Position

The market space a brand occupies in the mind of consumers, based on the brand's ability to deliver on its Brand Promise.

Brand Positioning

The distinctive position that a brand adopts in its competitive environment to ensure that individuals in its target market can tell the brand apart from others. Positioning involves the careful manipulation of every element of the marketing mix.

Brand Positioning Statement

A statement conveying the brand’s unique and intended position within its market (consumer perception). A brand’s positioning statement is an internal facing document. The statement typically details the offering, the audience and points of differentiation. (e.g., To [target audience] [brand] is [offering] that [point of differentiation])

Brand Promise

The unique benefit that the brand intends to deliver to its consumers.

Brand Recognition

The point at which the buyer is aware of a particular brand but has no preference for it.

Brand Relevance

The alignment of a brand’s strategy and identity to provide a clearly stated benefit that addresses a need, want or desire of a given consumer or consumer segment.

Brand Repositioning

Developing and operationalizing a new strategy to move a brand to a new market position by influencing new consumers to consider, prefer and ultimately purchase the brand offering, or by influencing existing consumers to assign greater value to the brand.

Brand Revitalization

A strategy to recapture lost sources of brand equity and identify and establish new sources of brand equity. This may include product modification or brand repositioning.

Brand Revival

Resurrection of a brand that is being harvested or which has been eliminated.

Brand Ritual

A set of actions that consumers equate to a specific brand. Brand rituals may coincide with specific occasions or be built into the product or service itself to exemplify the cultural connection between brand and consumer. By translating actions into brand-specific meaning, rituals can help build lifelong bonds between brands and consumers. e.g: Placing a wedge of lime in a bottle of Corona

Brand Signals

Brand Signals are tangible cues (sight, sound, touch, taste, smell or action) that directly equate to the brand. These multi-sensory signals communicate the unique position that a brand has taken by allowing consumers to differentiate and authenticate that brand. Brand signals work individually and collectively to drive consumers' perceptions and expectations.

Brand Sonification

The use of nonverbal sound to convey brand related information and aesthetics. Sound is often under utilized, yet can be a very powerful brand signal.

Brand Steward

A term used to refer to any individual whose responsible for managing brand compliance within an organization. This extends from product development to brand identity. Note: while all brand manages are Brand Stewards, not all brand Stewards need to be Brand Managers.

Brand Strategy

An action plan to create a competitive advantage by leveraging the unique factors that form an offering, to build sustainable relationships between a brand and a consumer audience. Driven by differentiation and sustained consumer appeal, brand strategy acts as both a beacon and litmus test, this ensures consistent brand behavior and experience. The brand strategy influences the total operation of a business to ensure consistent brand behaviors and brand experiences.

Brand Tribe (also referred to as Brand Cult)

Formal and/or informal groups of consumers whom share the same awareness, passion and loyalty for a brand and/or portfolio of brands.

Brand Valuation

Identifying and defining the economic strengths and weaknesses of a brand.

Brand Value

See: Brand Equity

Brand Value Proposition

Brand Value Proposition

Brand Values

How the vision and promises are delivered to the consumer. The small number of descriptive behaviors that the brand is to exemplify. These are to represent the company, brand and employees. Examples include passion, inventiveness, respect, honesty, collaboration, etc.

Brand Vision

The brand's guiding insight into its world.

Brand Washed

A consumer who holds either a positive or negative bias to a given brand, based on a set of false associations. (e.g., Beautiful people drink Veuve Clicquot. I drink Veuve Clicquot. Therefore, I am beautiful.)

Branded Environment

The brand identity as applied to a three–dimensional physical space. Typically a retail environment.

Brand Workshop

A team of people brought together in one place to gain common understanding and/or develop innovative solutions to a particular brand related problem. Workshops are often held off–sight to keep team members focused on their mission and minimize the interference of daily tasks.

Brandjacking / Brandjacked

The unauthorized, unlicensed use of a brand name or other trademark. (e.g., A Web domain pointing to a Web site that isn't owned by the trademark holder or an online user name that is not associated with the trademark holder.)

Brute Force Brand Approach

The belief that a strong brand impression can be created by repeated exposure to a creatively presented offer. This approach dominates the advertising industry.

Buyers Remorse

Consumer anguish arising from a misalignment between consumer expectation and brand experience of a product and/or service.

Buying the Market

Offering goods or services at greatly reduced pricing to establish majority market share.